In June 2020 Ethical Consumer searched the John Lewis website for an environmental report. The latest Corporate Responsibility Report 2018/19 was viewed.

The report discussed the environmental impact of its own operations and its supply chain, including addressing: emissions from its buildings and transportation; its waste, packaging and use of plastic; its raw material sourcing (including specific high-risk examples, such as soya and palm oil); water use and biodiversity in its agricultural supply chain. However, the company did not discuss the use of chemicals in its supply chain, including agrichemicals and those used in the production of clothing. As these were both key parts of the company's business, and often use toxic chemicals, discussion of these was considered to be necessary. The company was therefore not considered to demonstrate adequate understanding of its environmental impact.

The report contained several future, quantifiable environmental targets, including:
- Divert 100% of waste from landfill by end 2020/21
- 75% operational waste to be recycled by year end 2020/21
- By year end 2020/21 a 65% reduction in carbon intensity (tonnes per £m) against a 2010 baseline
- By year end 2020/21 reduce energy consumption (kWh per ft2) by 20% against a 2010 baseline.

KPMG had been engaged to give independent limited assurance over selected data, but not the whole report.

Overall, John Lewis Partnership received Ethical Consumer's middle rating for Environmental Reporting and lost half a mark in this category.

Reference:

Corporate Responsibilty Report 2018/19 (April 2019)

In June 2020 Ethical Consumer viewed John Lewis Partnership's Corporate Responsibility report 2019 for details of progress on removing HFCs from refrigeration. For more information on these high emission gases see below.
The report stated that it had a new target: "All Waitrose & Partners core refrigeration to be HFC free BY 2028."
2028 was 3 years after the government's latest recommended phase-out date.

In October 2014 Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) released it 6th and final report called Chilling Facts: Closing the doors on HFCs. The report provided research into the growing uptake of natural refrigerants among some of the world's leading retailers, reflecting a market shift towards climate-friendly refrigeration in the supermarket sector. According to the report hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were the world's fastest growing source of man-made emissions, rising at an alarming rate of 10-15 per cent a year. EIA considered the adaptation of HFC/CO2 hybrid systems as a potentially useful stepping stone towards HFC-free systems, but not as an end point in themselves. The overall aim should be to phase out these gases in favour of climate-friendly alternatives. The report looked at the chemicals used in refrigerating both in-store fridges and freezers as well as the transportation of goods.
The report recommended that retailers should:
1. Commit to installing only HFC-free systems in all new stores and refurbishments, across entire estate, including their food transport systems and international operations;
2. Commit to a total phase-out by 2025 at the latest (the UK Government will ban the use of HFCs with GWP above 2500 from 2020).
3. Fit doors on all chiller and freezer units as standard
4. Remove any HFCs with Global Warming Potential above 2,500 in existing equipment as a matter of priority.

The company lost half a mark under Climate Change.

Reference:

www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk (4 June 2020)

The campaign group Feedback published a report in June 2018 entitled The food waste scorecard: an assessment of supermarket action to address food waste. The report ranked UK supermarkets based on publicly available information, mainly from their websites or news articles, to assess their efforts to tackle food waste in the industry.

The report measured supermarkets against the food use hierarchy. Feedback established key indicators for each facet of the food use hierarchy, which include reducing and preventing surplus food as a priority, followed by redistributing surplus food, recycling surplus food and finally the proper disposal of food waste. Supermarkets scored a point for each of the 32 key indicators successfully implemented.

Waitrose scored an F rating overall and was the worst performing supermarket of the 10 assessed in the report. This was mainly due to the absence of public data on food waste, poor quantities of redistributed food in comparison to other supermarkets, limited work with suppliers to reduce food waste and the fact that there was no programme in place for sending permissible food surplus to animal feed at the time of publication.

On reducing and preventing surplus food, Waitrose was found to have implemented 4 of the 20 key indicators, however had not released any publicly available information on food waste at the time of publishing.

The second step in the food use hierarchy is redistribution, which involves surplus food that is fit for human consumption being sent to charities and organisations that redistribute food. Waitrose was found to have implemented 2 of the 4 key indicators and scored 1 out of 3 available points for the quantity of food redistributed, which amounted to £1,445,088 worth at the time of publishing. Waitrose’s website also stated that 21,949kg (22 tonnes) of food was donated to FareShare in 2016.

The food use hierarchy holds that food surplus unfit for human consumption should be used to feed animals. Waitrose did not score any points under this criteria and was not found to be engaging in this activity. Feedback observed that Waitrose’s website failed to include sending food surplus to animal feed, stating the next best use after redistribution is Anaerobic Digestion (AD). This was considered by Feedback to be a ‘distortion’ of the recycling stage of the hierarchy which is enshrined in the UK Waste Regulations (2011).

The final step in the food use hierarchy is the disposal of inedible food waste. Most UK supermarkets have a zero waste to landfill commitment. Instead, large quantities of food suitable for human consumption is being sent to Anaerobic Digestion (AD) to be converted into energy. According to the Feedback report, AD should only be used to process food waste which is unsuitable for redistribution or animal feed. In 2014, to a House of Lords enquiry into food waste, Waitrose stated that ‘there is a clear temptation, on economic grounds, to prioritise energy recovery over redistribution’. Waitrose was recognised for fulfilling 1 of the 3 key indicators under the disposal criteria due to its zero waste to landfill commitment.

The report stated, "Producing our food costs our planet dearly, with Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) from agriculture, forestry and fisheries doubling over the past 50 years (FAO 2014) to nearly 20% of emissions resulting from human activity. Globally, around one third of all food produced is wasted (FAO 2011)". As Waitrose was one of the lowest scoring in this report, it lost half a mark under Climate Change.

Reference:

Food Waste scorecard 2018 (18 April 2019)

In June 2020 Ethical Consumer searched for information on John Lewis's policies regarding toxic chemicals. The most recent information available was a July 2019 questionnaire response that Ethical Consumer had received from John Lewis Partnership.

Clothing
Many of the processes involved in the manufacture of clothing, especially the production of man made fibres and dying of fabrics, release numerous hazardous substances that have a significant negative environmental impact. As the issue was considered to be an industry wide problem all clothing companies lost a whole mark under pollution and toxics unless: they used 100% sustainably sourced materials (i.e. organic, recycled or cotton sourced under the Better Cotton Initiative); or were listed as a leader in the Greenpeace Detox campaign; or had a turnover of less than £10.2 million and were providing an environmental alternative. Some companies partially met these criteria, or were signatories to ZDHC (Zero Discharge Hazardous Chemicals), and lost only half a mark.

John Lewis was not a signatory to either the Greenpeace detox campaign nor the ZDHC. It provided Ethical Consumer with its Restricted Substance List and Chemical Management Standard. However these did not provide a clear enough commitment to removing harmful chemicals from its supply chain. The company did use some sustainable materials such as organic cotton but had a wide range of clothing made from non-sustainable materials.

Electronics
Electronics: A toxics policy was also deemed necessary for all electronics companies, as polyvinyl chlorides and brominated flame retardants were widely used by electronics companies and had a significant negative environmental impact when released after disposal. A strong policy on toxics in electronics would include publicly disclosed data on the use of hazardous chemicals such as PVC, BFR and phthalates; as well as clear, dated targets for ending their use. No policy could be found regarding John Lewis working to reduce the number of harmful chemicals in its electronics. It did set limits for phthalates in its Restricted Substance List, which in its Chemical Management Standard it stated that suppliers were contractually bound to comply with.

Overall John Lewis received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for toxic chemicals and lost a whole mark under Pollutions and Toxics.

Reference:

www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk (8 January 2019)

In June 2020 a search was made on the John Lewis website, www.johnlewis.com, and a number of products made with gold and diamonds were found. Although it had a page dedicated to a buying guide to jewellery, no mention of responsible sourcing of gold or diamonds was found.

An internet search indicated that the company had not signed the No Dirty Gold campaign to end irresponsible mining practices, nor was it a member of the Responsible Jewellery Council, which aimed to advance responsible business practices throughout the diamond and gold jewellery supply chains.

The January/February 2011 issue of Ethical Consumer highlighted the role of diamonds in fuelling conflict in Africa. The Channel Four Dispatches programme “The Real Price of Gold”, which was broadcast on 27th June 2011, and in which Ethical Consumer participated, highlighted some of the problems in gold supply chains around the world, including environmental destruction, child labour and the human rights impacts of pollution. The publication “Golden Rules: Making the case for responsible mining”, published by Earthworks and Oxfam America, also highlighted issues of forced displacement of local communities as a result of gold mining.

John Lewis therefore lost half a mark in the Pollution and Toxics category due to its lack of commitment to responsible gold mining, and a full mark in the Human Rights category as a result of the impacts of gold and diamonds.

Reference:

John Lewis (13 January 2020)

In June 2020 Ethical Consumer viewed the John Lewis Corporate Responsibility Report 2018/19.

It stated, "John Lewis & Partners use a wide mix of materials to make their products. Buying and technical Partners work with suppliers to source these materials in a more sustainable way including timber, cotton, recycled polyester, leather and feather and down. To help our buyers navigate the complexities of sourcing sustainable materials, we’ve developed Materials Matter - a guide for buyers to use when developing new ranges, looking at new suppliers or reviewing existing assortments. The guide is designed to support the sourcing process as we transition our supply base to more sustainable materials. We are currently expanding the guide further and moving it to a new online platform for our Partners and suppliers to access. In 2019, we’ll also be focusing on improving the traceability of some of our key raw materials with a focus on cashmere and mohair, working with our supply chain to guarantee traceability back to the farm. We’ll report more on our progress next year."

The Materials Matter guide was not found online. Due to the fact that the company sold leather, it lost half a mark under Ethical Consumer’s Animal Rights category.
It also lost half a mark in the Pollution and Toxics category for the following reason: leather, as the hide of a dead animal, naturally decomposes. To prevent this decomposition the leather industry uses a cocktail of harmful chemicals including trivalent chromium sulphate, sodium sulphide, sodium sulfhydrate, arsenic and cyanide to preserve it. Tannery effluent also contains large amounts of other pollutants, such as protein, hair, salt, lime sludge and acids. These can all pollute the land, air, and water supply making it a highly polluting industry.

Regarding feather and down, the company sold own-brand feather and down products including duvets and pillows, with no information in the product details online about animal welfare. According to campaign group Four Paws, animal suffering from the live-plucking and force-feeding of geese and ducks was present in the general down supply chains. In order to avoid these practices, a company was expected to adopt a standard that would trace and audit their whole supply chain, including higher-risk parent farms, to ensure such cruelties are excluded. Four Paws had found that certificates and audit reports from suppliers themselves 'do not provide sufficient guarantees that animals have a cruelty free life.' As the company had not adopted a down standard that included higher-risk parent farms, it lost a whole mark under the Animal Rights category.

Reference:

www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk (4 June 2020)

In June 2020 Ethical Consumer viewed John Lewis's website and 2019 annual report for the company's conflict minerals policy. No policy could be found.

Conflict minerals are minerals mined in conditions of armed conflict and human rights abuses, notably in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The minerals in question are Tantalum, Tin, Tungsten and Gold (3TG for short) and are key components of electronic devices, from mobile phones to televisions.

Ethical Consumer expects any company manufacturing electronics to have a policy on the sourcing of conflict minerals. Such a policy would articulate the company's commitment to conflict free sourcing of 3TG minerals and its commitment to continue ensuring due diligence on the issue. The policy should also state that it intends to continue sourcing from the DRC region in order to avoid an embargo, which would hurt local workers even more.

A company should also demonstrate its commitment to the issue of conflict minerals by supporting conflict free initiatives in the region either through membership of a multi-stakeholder initiative supporting the conflict-free minerals trade (such as Responsible Mineral Iniative (RMI), Public-Private Alliance for Responsible Minerals Trade (PPA) and industry initiatives such as JEITA Responsible Conflict Minerals Working Group) and / or financially supporting in-region mining initiatives (such as KEMET “Partnership for Social and Economic Sustainability”, Conflict-Free Tin Initiative (CFTI), ITRI Tin Supply Chain Initiative (iTSCi), Solutions for Hope).

A strong conflict minerals policy would also:
- require suppliers to adopt a robust 3TG conflict minerals policy and programme equivalent to the company.
- include details of the steps it will take to identify, assess, mitigate and respond to risks within its supply chain.
- use conflict minerals reporting templates by Conflict Free Sourcing Initiative (or may be referred to as EICC-GeSi) or OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas
- include a commitment (from the company and supplier) to only using 3TG minerals from smelters that have been audited and verified as conflict free by the Conflict Free Smelter Program, or an equivalent, as they become available
- list in detail the smelters or refiners (SORs)

Despite selling own brand electrical equipment like TVs and washing machines which commonly contain conflict minerals, John Lewis had no policy on the sourcing of conflict minerals. Therefore it received Ethical Consumer's worst rating for conflict minerals and lost marks under Human Rights and Habitats and Resources.

Reference:

www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk (4 June 2020)

In June 2020 Ethical Consumer viewed John Lewis's website for the company's timber sourcing policy. It now included Waitrose also.

John Lewis's 2019 Corporate Responsibility report stated, "We aim to promote sustainable forestry and curb the global trade in illegal timber"; "We have set a new, Partnership target to achieve 100% of the timber and paper in our own-brand products to come from trusted sources by year end 2020/21".

It had a diagram which showed the percentages meeting its new standards, Best, Better and Good, which replaced its previous categories of “Sustainable” and “Responsible”:
36%Best (FSC, PEFC, Grown in Britain), 17%Better (Recycled material, non-controversial sources), 29%Good(meets our standard), 18%In progress.
Its Timber Standard was also viewed which explained that Good meant: 1. (i) the timber origin and species is known (ii) supply chains have undergone a risk assessment by the John Lewis Partnership or our 3rd party due diligence provider, and (iii) were concluded to be at negligible risk of including illegal timber or paper, or 2. FLEGT Licensed Timber, or 3. LegalSource Certified Timber.

Its policy included a discussion on how it planned to implement its policy; it had a clear minimum standard.

The company covered the following topics:
1. the exclusion of illegal timber or that sourced from unknown sources
2. a discussion on how the company ensures / implements this
3. clear targets for sourcing timber from sustainably managed sources
4. preference given to certified sources
5. use of reclaimed / recycled wood / paper
6. a discussion of a good minimum standard

As the company covered the six points above it received Ethical Consumer's best rating for its timber sourcing policy.

Reference:

www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk (4 June 2020)

In April 2018 the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) issued a press release estimating the proportion of fish sold by supermarkets which was MSC certified. Waitrose had 67%.

The MSC label was reported to ensure that the fish being bought had been caught in an environmentally friendly way. MSC stated “Only seafood from fisheries that meet our strict standard for sustainability can be sold with the blue MSC label. These fisheries ensure that fish are caught at levels that allow fish populations and the ecosystems on which they depend to remain healthy and productive for the future… All along the supply chain, from ocean to plate, MSC certified fish and seafood is separated from non-certified. It is clearly labelled and can be traced back to a certified sustainable source.”

As Waitrose had around two thirds of its range certified it was not marked down in the Habitats and Resources category.

Reference:

Aldi swims ahead of British supermarkets in sustainable seafood (18 April 2018)

In January 2020 Ethical Consumer viewed the Waitrose website and saw that it was a food retailer. John Lewis website, Waitrose’s website and the RSPO website were therefore searched for publicly available information on the company's palm oil.

John Lewis’s Corporate Responsibility 2018/19 stated "All of Waitrose palm oil has been certified by the RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) since 2012. Our target is for all palmbased ingredients to be physically certified to RSPO standards and we use RSPO credits for the remainder until that target has been achieved"

Waitrose had been a member of the RSPO since 2006 and had submitted the Annual Communication on Progress (ACOP) for 2018. The ACOP gave total volumes of crude palm oil and palm kernel oil and derivatives as well as giving specific volumes of book and claim, mass balance, segregated palm oil and identity preserved. 57% of the company's palm oil was certified by the segregated method.

The disclosure applied to the company's entire supply chain, but suppliers were not named. All of the palm oil and palm kernel oil used by the company was reported to be certified by the RSPO. The company picked up additional marks for disclosing volumes and having a group wide commitment.

The company’s website,www.waitrose.com, also stated “Our aim is to source 100% physically certified palm-based ingredients in all our products. For any remaining palm oil, we purchase RSPO credits from certified producers, including smallholder farmers. ….Waitrose & Partners is also a member of the Retail Palm Oil Transparency Coalition, a group of retailers working together to manage issues that go beyond the RSPO standards. As a part of this coalition, we are working to develop new tools that will empower all retailers to hold palm oil importers accountable to their zero deforestation commitments’.

Overall, Waitrose received Ethical Consumer's middle rating for palm oil sourcing.

Reference:

Corporate Responsibilty Report 2018/19 (April 2019)