Gas & Electricity

We investigate, score and rank the ethical and environmental record of 20 energy suppliers

The fuels that generate a supplier's electricity, biogas, green tariffs, renewable generation, energy prices, which companies back fracking, and our recommended buys.

About Ethical Consumer

This is a product guide from Ethical Consumer, the UK's leading alternative consumer organisation. Since 1989 we've been researching and recording the social and environmental records of companies, and making the results available to you in a simple format.

Learn more about us →

What to buy

What to look for when buying an electricity or gas tariff:

  • Does the company supply 100% renewable energy?

  • Is the company building new sources of green energy? Look for a renewable energy company that is building its renewables capacity.

Best Buys

The Best Buys are from green tariff companies that are also building renewable energy capacity.

We will be updating this guide and our recommendations by the end of January 2021. Our Best Buys for socially ethical electricity and gas companies were previously Ebico, Robin Hood Energy and Bristol Energy. However, Robin Hood and Bristol Energy have been sold, and Ebico's customers have also been transferred to British Gas.

Out of the Big Six we previously recommended SSE, because it is supporting renewable energy more than any of the others and is Fair Tax Mark certified. But in January 2020 it sold its retail electricity and gas business to Ovo.

What not to buy

What to avoid when buying an electricity or gas tariff: 

  • Does it rely on coal and nuclear? Avoid tariffs that generate the majority of their electricity from coal and nuclear.

  • Is it funding fracking?  Don't buy tariffs from companies that are backing fracking

Companies to avoid

EDF gets most of its electricity from nuclear whilst British Gas has investments in fracking.

  • EDF
  • British Gas

Score table

Updated live from our research database

← Swipe left / right to view table contents →
Brand Score(out of 20) Ratings Categories Positive Scores

Bulb gas & electricity

Company Profile: Bulb Energy Ltd

Bristol Energy gas & electricity

Company Profile: Bristol Energy

Green Energy gas & electricity

Company Profile: Green Energy (UK) Plc

Good Energy gas & electricity

Company Profile: Good Energy Ltd

Pure Planet electricity and gas

Company Profile: Pure Planet Ltd

Ecotricity gas & electricity [S] [A]

Company Profile: Ecotricity Group Limited

Utility Warehouse domestic electricity and gas

Company Profile: Utility Warehouse Limited

E.ON domestic gas & electricity [S]

Company Profile: E.ON S.E. [Formerly E.ON AG]

Ebico electricity and gas

Company Profile: Robin Hood Energy Ltd

Npower domestic gas and electricity

Company Profile: Npower

Ovo/SSE Energy gas & electricity

Company Profile: OVO Group Ltd [Formerly Ovo Energy (Group)]

EDF gas & electricity

Company Profile: EDF Energy Limited

Ovo/SSE Energy gas

Company Profile: OVO Group Ltd [Formerly Ovo Energy (Group)]

Robin Hood electricity and gas

Company Profile: Robin Hood Energy Ltd

Scottish Power electricity and gas

Company Profile: Scottish Power Limited

British Gas gas & electricity

Company Profile: Centrica Plc

Octopus electricity and gas

Company Profile: Octopus Energy Ltd

Engie green electricity and gas tariff

Company Profile: Octopus Energy Holdings Ltd

Co-op Energy gas & electricity tariff

Company Profile: Octopus Energy Holdings Ltd

Green Star Electricity and gas

Company Profile: Hudson Energy Holdings UK Ltd

Shell Energy gas and electricity

Company Profile: Shell Energy Retail Limited [FORMERLY First Utility Ltd]

What is most important to you?

Product sustainability

Our Analysis

The ethics of Gas & Electricity suppliers

There have been a couple of changes in the electricity and gas suppliers market over the past few years. First, although the Big Six (EDF, British Gas, SSE, ScottishPower, E.ON & Npower) still supply about 85% of customers, the number of small companies has exploded. Second, the Big Six have all dropped their ‘green’ tariffs in response to Ofgem rules limiting them to four tariffs each. To what extent these tariffs are meaningful is one of the main topics of this guide.

Energy supply was responsible for 29% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the UK in 2015 – still the largest amount of any sector, even though it has been falling.

Electricity generation

Coal is in decline throughout the whole world due to being undercut by cheap shale gas and by the falling cost of renewables.

In the UK, an additional factor is the 2015 introduction of an £18-per-tonne carbon floor price, a tax on carbon emissions that is paid by electricity generators. As coal is the most carbon intensive of the fossil fuels, this is brilliant news. 

Looking at UK generation figures over time, you can see coal’s dramatic collapse:

As a result of the changes shown on the graph below, CO2 emissions from UK electricity generation in 2016 were approximately half those in 2010.

Globally, wind and solar are taking half of all investment in new electricity generation capacity. Renewables generate close to a quarter of global electricity, and a similar proportion in the UK. While this is poor compared to countries like Spain and Denmark, we are the world leader in offshore wind, our key resource.

Graph: annual uk electricity generation 2009-16

Full online access to our unique shopping guides, ethical rankings and company profiles. The essential ethical print magazine.

The electricity grid mix of the different energy suppliers

The fuel mix of the electricity supplied by the different suppliers in 2016/2017 is shown in the box below – if you want updated figures at a later date, they are easy to obtain from the website. The green energy tariffs are highlighted in green.

See here for more on green tariffs and whether they make a difference.

Table: Fuel Mix of UK Domestic Electricity Suppliers

Which energy companies are backing fracking?

If you’re concerned about the expansion of fracking in the UK you might want to avoid companies that are involved. Many are keeping quiet. The information we have found on the companies in this guide is below. Note that the first shipment of US fracked shale gas, imported by Ineos for manufacturing, arrived in September 2016. See our feature on fracking for the latest campaigning efforts.

Table: which companies back fracking
Sources: 1, 2 website 3 4 _autumn_statement 5 6 7 8 Social Responsibility Report 2015/2016 – The Midcounties Co-operative 9 10 11

Energy Prices

Per kWh, the cost of electricity has been steadily rising for over a decade, but this has been offset by the fact that we are now using less energy as a result of improved appliance efficiency standards, and the average bill has stayed about the same.[1]

Over the past few years, the Big Six have been repeatedly accused of profiteering and price fixing, and the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) spent two years investigating the sector between 2014 and 2016. Eventually, however, it did not find evidence of price fixing, and back-peddled on previous claims about how much the Big Six had been overcharging customers.

Many people have called the investigation a whitewash. The CMA agrees that the smaller suppliers generally charge substantially less. This is rather odd considering that, in most cases, the product is basically identical, and you would expect the Big Six to also be benefiting from economies of scale. So there surely must be something going on.

You are probably paying more than you need to

What the CMA did say unequivocally was that many people are paying far more than they need to. Differences between tariffs can amount to 20% of an average bill. This is quite a new development, and many people may not yet have caught on that they can save a substantial amount of money by shopping around.

Companies must now produce a Tariff Information Label and a Tariff Comparison Rate to allow customers to see key information about their tariff and compare it with others. This should mean that finding the best deal is easier, however, watch out for price hikes in year two.

You’re unlikely to be losing customer service by switching to a cheaper tariff. The CMA say, “we have seen no evidence to suggest that suppliers offering the cheapest tariffs have worse quality of service than those offering more expensive tariffs”.

The whole thing also has large social justice implications. The CMA found that those who don’t switch are likely to be people who are struggling financially, without qualifications, over 65, on low incomes, living in social housing, disabled, or single parents.

They also found that the people who would gain the most from switching, those who are currently paying the highest prices, tend to be those with incomes below £18,000, in rented accommodation, or in receipt of a Warm Home Discount rebate. In other words, the energy companies are milking the most vulnerable members of society.

Addressing the social issues around bills

A few companies are explicitly trying to address the anti-poor nature of the gas and electricity market. Ebico, a tiny supplier with Christian roots, charges all its customers the same price regardless of how they pay, meaning that it uses the extra income from direct debit customers to keep down prices for pre-pay and quarterly consumers, who are generally the poorest.

Robin Hood Energy makes a point of saying that it does not switch customers onto expensive tariffs when their old contract expires, as the Big Six often do. And the companies which have only one tariff, such as Ecotricity, can’t do this anyway.

In terms of the wider issues, you could argue that the level of concern about energy bills is an argument for prioritising investment in the cheapest renewables, as they give the biggest bang for their buck. However, low-carbon policies, including subsidies and carbon taxes, currently only account for about 9% of an average energy bill, while, as described above, the difference between different tariffs can itself amount to 20%. In other words, it is not low-carbon policies that are the cause of fuel poverty.

Score table highlights

Political donations

Ecotricity is one of the largest corporate donors to both the Labour and Green Parties. In the last five years it gave £450,000 to the Labour Party, £70,000 to the Lib Dems, and £20,000 to the Greens. Dale Vince, the company’s owner, says that the company is trying to fund other political parties because of the dire threat that the Tories pose to renewable energy development.

We at Ethical Consumer are engaged in an internal discussion about whether to continue marking companies down for donating to left-wing parties. We currently do, so Ecotricity gets marked down for these donations, although some readers may view them as a perk rather than a bug.

Other companies give smaller amounts to political parties. Over the last few years ScottishPower gave the Labour Party £42,000 and the Tories £26,000; and E.ON and EDF gave the Tories £8,400 and £2,500 respectively.

Excessive director’s pay

Octopus, ENGIE, Greenstar and all of the Big Six except EDF got marked down for paying at least one director over £1 million. EDF may do so too, but the information wasn’t available.


This market is exceptional in that two companies actually have the Fair Tax Mark, which gives them a clean bill of health tax wise: Co-op Energy and SSE.

ScottishPower is also in the clear on tax, as it does not seem to have any high-risk subsidiaries in jurisdictions that Ethical Consumer considers to be tax havens. The other four of the Big Six received our worst rating for likely use of tax avoidance strategies, as did ENGIE.


Another of the major changes that has occurred recently is that several “green” electricity and gas companies have started selling ‘green gas’ – biogas.

Biogas is made by decomposing organic matter like food waste or grass in the absence of oxygen. Once cleaned up it is chemically identical to natural gas. Indeed, natural gas was made exactly the same way, just a lot longer ago.

The problem with biogas is the same as any other biofuel: where to grow the feedstock. However, it is possible to get some from waste, and at the moment we are probably not utilising the full sustainable UK potential in that regard. The Committee on Climate Change’s most recent report on heating argues that biogas could sustainably provide about 5% of our heating needs.[1]

Why biogas now?

Biogas has been used to generate electricity in the UK for many years, and has been promoted through the Renewables Obligation (RO). However, in 2011, an additional subsidy was added in the form of the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), to incentivise its use for heat as well. This was a generous subsidy and the industry has exploded. In 2015, the UK was the fastest growing biogas market in the world.

As the market has grown, biogas has increasingly come from dedicated crops rather than waste. In 2016, the government changed the rules so that new biogas plants will only receive support if at least 50% of the biogas is derived from waste. Levels of support have also been cut, meaning that the growth may start to tail off.

How are companies contributing?

The structure of the RHI is different from the RO. In the case of the RHI, there is no mandated quantity of biogas that companies must use, there is just a fixed subsidy paid per MWh that they inject into the grid. This suggests that, unlike with electricity, you should be able to get a subsidy in one place without reducing it somewhere else. And that means that, although the biogas boom is still largely being driven by the government, when you buy biogas you slightly increase the demand for biogas, just like you do when you buy any normal product.

The only crucial question is to what extent this is a good thing. It is definitely the case that not all of the biogas being supplied is coming from waste. And because they need so much land to grow on, all fuels from dedicated crops raise very complex issues.

Even if the actual land they are grown on was not being used for anything important at the time, maybe it would otherwise have been used for something in the future, and instead those future activities may be pushed into forests or onto good agricultural land.

One thing is certain: biogas is not a solution for everyone’s heating. It is not ‘scalable’.

Reference: 1 - Committee on Climate Change, 2016, Next Steps for UK Heat Policy

UK Climate Policy 

The bad news is that UK climate policy is being gutted.

Over the past six years the Tories have unleashed a torrent of anti-renewables and anti-climate legislation. In 2011 they introduced a harsh cap on all subsidies to renewables, in what they said was an effort to keep down consumer bills.

In 2015, they cut the rate of the solar PV feed-in tariff, and announced that it would be closing altogether in 2019. In the same year, they removed the exemption that renewable electricity had on paying the Climate Change Levy, a tax on commercial energy users.

They scrapped the plan to build new houses carbon neutral, and the Green Deal home improvement fund which helped people insulate their houses. They also started to lay waste to onshore windfarms, the cheapest renewable technology. They axed all subsidies to them, and the law was also changed to give local residents a veto over their receiving planning consent.

To round things off, in November 2015 the government made a shock last-minute decision to cancel a £1 billion carbon capture and storage development competition, which had been promised as a way of kickstarting the technology in the UK.

There have been a few policy initiatives in the opposite direction. The Renewable Heat Incentive was one of them. The carbon floor price was another. But overall the picture is not looking good. The Green Alliance claims that investment in renewable energy is likely to decline by 95% by 2020. For the first time in many years, a smaller proportion of our electricity came from renewables in 2016 than the year before.

Company behind the brand

Ecotricity was started in 1995, which makes it the father figure of the specialised green suppliers. It has built the most renewable capacity of any of them, mostly wind. The 70 MW that it now owns is about 0.5% of the UK’s total wind capacity.

Ecotricity is owned by Dale Vince, who is interested in a lot of environmental ideas, and the company runs various side-projects such as building an electric sports car called ‘Nemesis’. Vince blogs on climate issues. In 2010, he bought much of Forest Green Rovers Football Club, was appointed chairman and persuaded the whole club to go vegan.

 Want to know more?

If you want to find out detailed information about a company and more about its ethical rating, then click on a brand name in the Score table. 

This information is reserved for subscribers only. Don't miss out, become a subscriber today.