Boycotts have a long and important history of contributing to progressive social change, as well as succeeding in their more immediate goals.
One of the earliest examples was the boycott in England of sugar produced by slaves. In 1791, after Parliament refused to abolish slavery, thousands of pamphlets were printed encouraging the boycott. Sales of sugar dropped by between a third and a half.
By contrast sales of Indian sugar, untainted by slavery, rose tenfold in two years. In an early example of fair trade, shops began selling sugar guaranteed to be have been produced by 'free men'.
Recent examples of successful boycott campaigns:
JANUARY: The Body Shop successfully ended, after the company's owner declared itself cruelty-free. Natura, which bought the high-street chain in 2017, announced a clear animal testing policy after hundreds of consumers wrote to the company. Naturewatch lifted the boycott call, after 11 years of campaigning, and has invited both Natura and The Body Shop to join its list for cruelty-free cosmetics brands.
FEBRUARY: Multiple companies cut ties with the NRA, following boycott calls.
- Delta Airlines, United Airlines, Hertz, Budget, Avis, Best Western and Wyndham Hotels all stated that they would no longer offer discounts or other special offers for NRA members.
- The insurer Chubb dropped cover for NRA Carry Guard insurance.
- Enterprise Rent–A–Car announced that is was severing ties.
- First National Bank of Omaha stated that it would end a Visa credit card it offered with NRA branding.
The companies all faced boycotts for their links to the NRA after the association called for teachers to be armed and spoke out against student gun control activists, in the wake of the Parkland high school shooting.
JULY: Ivanka Trump closed her fashion brand, after boycotts from consumers following her father's election. The brand was a target of the Boycott Trump campaign due to Ivanka's links with the President and her own role as a senior adviser. According to the Wall Street Journal, which cited research from Rakuten Intelligence, online sales of the brand at Amazon, Macy's and Bloomingdales fell almost 45% in the year to June. Several retailers also dropped the brand.
The Irish Senate approved a bill that would ban the import of goods from the Palestinian occupied territories. If the bill passes Ireland’s lower house it will set a precedent within the EU. The Act will prohibit “trade with and economic support for illegal settlements in territories deemed occupied under international law”, which would make Ireland the first EU country to introduce a national boycott of Israeli-settlement goods. The bill does not name Israel but instead refers to “occupying powers” and “illegal settlements” – both terms that the Israeli settlement fulfil under UN law.
JULY: Picturehouse agreed to negotiate with its workers' trade union BECTU, following strikes and a consumer boycott of the cinema chain. The company had previously refused to meet with the union, which workers said it would not recognise.
SEPTEMBER: Local councils' right to boycott was upheld by the UK's High Court. In November 2015, the government announced new legislation that would black local councils from divesting their pension funds, for example for climate change, or human rights reasons. The legislation was challenged by Palestine Solidarity Campaign, War on Want, Campaign against Arms Trade, and Quakers as well as individuals and trade unions.
NOVEMBER: Boots dropped the price of its own-brand emergency contraceptive pill, after the British Pregnancy Advisory Service threatened to call a boycott of the company. Boots had previously said that it would not drop the price, in line with other retailers, because it did not 'want to be accused of incentivising inappropriate use'.
JANUARY: The United Methodist Church, a Presbyterian denomination that numbers over seven million members, said it will not invest in the five banks for financing "settlement activity" over the 1949 Armistice lines.
The five banks to be boycotted by the church's pension board are:
- Bank Hapoalim,
- Bank Leumi,
- First International Bank of Israel,
- Israel Discount Bank and
- Bank Mizrahi-Tefahot.
Colette Nies, a spokeswoman for the pension board, said that the guideline, approved by the board in 2014 and carried out last year, applied to 14 different regions around the world, including the Middle East.
MARCH: Seaworld have announced that they will end all ocra breeding programmes this year, making this generation of captive orcas the last to be kept in SeaWorld's tanks. They will also phase out of orca whale shows in all the parks.
This is a huge victory for animal rights campaigners and follows pressure from numerous campaign groups including PETA and the Captive Animals' Protection Society from the UK.
MAY: Global security services giant G4S provides services to Israeli prisons in which human rights campaigners have documented systematic torture and ill-treatment of Palestinian prisoners, including child prisoners. In 2015, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sold its stake in G4S.
JUNE: After its AGM in June 2015 was severely disrupted by protesters, G4S announced that it will end its Israeli prison contracts in the next three years.
The United Church of Christ, a Protestant denomination in the USA with around a million members, unanimously approved an Israel divestment resolution in June. Their General Synod voted 508-124 in favour.
Reverend James Moos, executive minister of UCC Wider Church Ministries and co-executive of Global Ministries, told Business Insider that the vote was representative of the church’s commitment to peace in the Middle East.
“The United Church of Christ condemns all forms of violence and anti-Semitism, and affirms Israel’s right to exist within secure and internationally recognized borders,” Moos said in a statement. “We similarly assert the right of Palestinians to have a sovereign, independent and viable state within secure and recognized borders.”
AUGUST: French multinational Veolia was involved in the Jerusalem light railway, which connects Jerusalem to illegal Israeli settlements. It also operates a landfill site in the occupied Jordan Valley which takes waste from Israel (in violation of international law) and formerly ran settler-only bus routes in the West Bank.